Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition where the body has difficulty controlling the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It occurs when the body does not make enough insulin or when the insulin that is made is not working properly. This leads to increased blood glucose levels and diabetes. There are three different types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Some people have impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance and may be able to delay or avoid the onset of type 2 diabetes if they modify lifestyle risk factors.

WHAT IS DIABETES?

TYPE 1 DIABETES

Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce insulin because the cells that make the insulin have been destroyed by the body's own immune system. People with type 1 diabetes need to inject insulin every day and follow a special diet.

TYPE 2 DIABETES

Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common type of diabetes, affecting 85-90% of people with diabetes. It usually affects older adults, but younger people and children are getting type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes insulin, but the insulin does not work as well as it should, so the pancreas makes more. Eventually it can't make enough to keep the glucose balance in control.

GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and usually goes away after the baby is born. Between 3-8% of pregnant women will develop gestational diabetes. In pregnancy, the hormones produced by the body to help the baby grow also block the action of the mother's insulin. Gestational diabetes develops if the body is unable to produce enough insulin in response to this increased need for insulin. This form of diabetes normally resolves after pregnancy but women who have had gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.


IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT), Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and pre-diabetes are similar conditions where the body does not handle glucose well so that glucose levels may take extra time to return to normal values after a meal. People with these conditions usually have insulin which does not function as it should and this is called insulin resistance. These conditions are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes. Modifying lifestyle factors such as reducing weight if overweight and increasing exercise may delay or stop these conditions developing into type 2 diabetes.


WHAT FACTORS INCREASE THE RISK OF DEVELOPING TYPE 2 DIABETES?

WHAT YOU CAN'T CHANGE WHAT YOU CAN CHANGE
Family history of diabetes Overweight and obesity
Increasing age Low activity levels
Ethnicity (incidence of diabetes is higher in Torres Strait Islanders and Aborigines) High blood pressure
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome High cholesterol
Women who have had gestational diabetes or given birth to a baby 4.5 kg Smoking

The good news is that there are lifestyle factors you can change which will reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  • Downsize your waist to less than 102 cm (men) or 88 cm (women)
  • Exercise for at least 2.5 hours per week
  • Eat more vegetables and switch to high fibre, whole grain cereal products
  • Reduce your fat intake and switch to small amounts of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and omega 3 fats such as canola and olive oils, sunflower oil and omega 3 fats

It is still not known exactly which factors cause type 1 diabetes, and therefore there are no recommendations to prevent it.


HOW CAN I TELL IF I HAVE DIABETES?

Some of the symptoms that are common between all types of diabetes include: tiredness, increased thirst, frequent urination, headaches, leg cramps, increased hunger.

The symptoms specific to type 2 diabetes are more gradual in onset. They may also include blurred vision, skin infections, slow healing, tingling and numbness in the feet.

Diabetes is diagnosed by either a Fasting Blood Glucose or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test which are simple blood tests ordered by your doctor.

HOW IS TYPE 1 DIABETES TREATED?

People with type 1 diabetes must inject insulin at least once per day. Balancing the amount of carbohydrate foods they eat with the right amount of insulin is important to prevent blood sugar levels from going too high, or low.

HOW IS TYPE 2 DIABETES TREATED?

The primary treatment for type 2 diabetes involves adopting a healthy lifestyle. This includes healthy eating, regular physical activity and reducing those changeable risk factors, such as overweight and smoking. It is important to self monitor blood glucose levels regularly and have regular check-ups with your GP. In some cases, if blood glucose levels remain uncontrolled by a healthy diet alone, your GP may prescribe medication and/or insulin injections.


GOOD FOOD, GOOD LIFE TIPS FOR GOOD BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL

Nutrition is important for everyone. Maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active most days and distributing small meals and snacks throughout the day without skipping meals are good for everyone's health. If you have diabetes you may find that selecting low glycaemic index foods improves your blood sugar control. You also need to take care of your diet if you have high cholesterol or triglyceride levels or high blood pressure.

This fact sheet contains general information and is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. Please consult your healthcare professional for specific advice for your personal situation.

If you would like current information about our products please visit www.nestle.com.au/brands or call our Consumer Services Department during business hours on 1800 025 361.


REFERENCES

Diabetes Australia: Diabetes the Facts accessed January 2011
http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Resources/Brochures--Booklets1/

Medline Plus. Type 2 Diabetes. 2006 23 January 2006 [accessed Jan 2011]; Available from:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000313.htm

Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association: Diabetes Care: 2008 Jan 31; Supp1: S61-78

A European evidence-based guideline for the prevention of type 2 diabetes Horm Metab Res. 2010 Apr; 42 Suppl 1:S3-36. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

National Evidence Based Guideline for the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes,
prepared by: The Diabetes Unit Menzies Centre for Health Policy The University of Sydney for the: Diabetes Australia Guideline Development Consortium. Approved by NHMRC on 10 December 2009
www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Diabetes-National-Guidelines/

Prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease targeting risk factors: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Dec 2009 http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=6442468313
 
Cameron AJ, Welborn TA, Zimmet PZ, Dunstan W, Owen N, Salmon J, Dalton M ,Jolley D, Shaw JE. Overweight and Obesity in Australia: the 1999-2000 Australian, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Medical Journal of Australia 2003; 178:427-423